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Cardinal direction

Cardinal directions or cardinal points are the four main directions or points of the compass: north, east, south and west. These direction are also written in short form as N, E, S and W. North and south are directed towards the north and south p ...

Ecoregion

An ecoregion, sometimes called a bioregion, is the next smallest ecologically and geographically defined area beneath "realm" or "ecozone". Ecoregions cover relatively large area of land or water, and contain characteristic, geographically distin ...

Cape flower region

The Cape flower region is a nature area near the south end of South Africa. The region is the smallest of the six "flower kingdoms" of the world, as recognised by Ronald Good. Its formal title is the Cape South Africa Floristic Region. The region ...

Great Barrier Reef

The Great Barrier Reef is the worlds largest coral reef. It is near the coast of Queensland, Australia. It is made up of nearly 2900 coral reefs and over 600 islands. It is 327.800 km² big and 2600 km long. It has been listed an important World H ...

Ecozone

An ecozone or biogeographic realm is the largest scale biogeographic division of the earths surface. These divisions are based on the historic and evolutionary distribution of plants and animals. Ecozones represent large areas of the Earth surfac ...

Afrotropic

The Afrotropic is one of the Earths eight ecozones. The zone was formerly known as the Ethiopian Zone. The zone includes Africa south of the Sahara, the southern and eastern parts of the Arabian Peninsula, the island of Madagascar, southern Iran, ...

Alpine tundra

Alpine tundra is a type of geological terrain. It is to be found at high enough altitude at any latitude on Earth. Alpine tundra lacks trees. The lower parts do not have permafrost. Because of this they are generally better drained than permafros ...

Australasian ecozone

The Australasian zone is an ecological region which fits the geographic region of Australasia. That means Australia, New Guinea and neighbouring islands. The northern boundary is the Wallace Line. The ecozone includes Australia, the island of New ...

Global 200

The Global 200 is the list of ecoregions identified by the World Wide Fund for Nature as priorities for conservation. According to the WWF, an ecoregion is defined as a "relatively large unit of land or water containing a characteristic set of na ...

Holarctic

The Holarctic ecozone refers to the habitats found throughout the northern continents of the world as a whole. This region is divided into the Palearctic and the Nearctic. The palearctic is Northern Africa and all of Eurasia, with the exception o ...

Nearctic

For the thoroughbred racehorse see Nearctic. The Nearctic is one of the eight terrestrial ecozones dividing the Earths land surface. In ecology, an ecozone is a large land mass that contains many terrestrial ecoregions, each of which has unique p ...

Neotropic

In context of biogeography, Neotropic or Neotropical means one of the worlds eight terrestrial ecozones. This ecozone includes South and Central America, the Mexican lowlands, the Caribbean islands, and southern Florida, because these regions sha ...

Palearctic

The Palearctic ecozone is one of the eight dividing the Earths surface. The Palearctic is by far the largest ecozone. It includes the terrestrial ecoregions of Europe, Asia north of the Himalayan foothills, northern Africa, and the northern and c ...

Subalpine zone

The subalpine zone is the zone of plants just below tree line around the world. Species that occur in the zone vary according to where they are on the Earth. For example, Snow Gum in Australia, or Subalpine Larch, Mountain Hemlock and Subalpine F ...

Expedition

An expedition usually means a long journey or voyage done for a specific purpose, often exploratory, scientific, geographic, military or political in nature.

Exploration

Exploration is the act of searching an unfamiliar area in order to learn about it. It involves the discovery of new information. Human beings explore even when they have everything they need where they are. They are the only mammal that does this ...

New South Greenland

New South Greenland, which is also known as Morrells Land, was an appearance of land recorded by the American captain Benjamin Morrell. Morrel reported the sighting on the schooner Wasp in March 1823, during a seal hunting and exploration voyage ...

Nimrod Expedition

The British Antarctic Expedition 1907–09 was also called the Nimrod Expedition. It was the first of three expeditions to the Antarctic led by Ernest Shackleton. The purpose of the journey was to reach the South Pole. They did not reach the South ...

Northwest Passage

The Northwest Passage is a sea passage along the north coast of North America, through the Arctic Ocean. Because of ice, the passage is usually closed to ships. The Spanish Empire wanted to reach Asia by a western route, because Portugal controll ...

Valdivia expedition

The Valdivia expedition was a scientific exedition to explore the Deep sea. It was a German expedition, done in 1898 and 1899. A ship was bought from Hamburg-Amerikanischen Packetfahrt-Actien-Gesellschaft HAPAG and given instruments to be able to ...

Forest

A forest is a piece of land with many trees. Many animals need forests to live and survive. Forests are very important and grow in many places around the world. They are an ecosystem which includes many plants and animals. Temperature and rainfal ...

Aokigahara

Aokigahara is a forest at the northwest base of Mount Fuji in Japan. The forest is known to be quiet because of the absence of wildlife and the wind-blocking density of the trees that are in it. A number of rocky, icy caverns are in the forest an ...

Forests of Azerbaijan

The total forest area of Azerbaijan is 1.021.880 ha or 11.8% of the countrys area. The forest biomes are made up of temperate deciduous forests, temperate mixed deciduous and coniferous forests, temperate coniferous forests and riparian forests. ...

Cloud forest

A cloud forest or fog forest is a tropical or subtropical, evergreen, montane, moist forest. It has a long-lasting, frequent or seasonal low-level cloud cover, usually at the canopy level. Cloud forests often have mosses covering the ground and v ...

Coal forest

Coal forests were huge areas of wetlands which covered much of the Earths tropical land areas in the late Carboniferous and Permian times. At the time most continents were crowded together in the supercontinent Gondwana. They lay on the path of t ...

Deforestation

Deforestation is when forests are destroyed by cutting trees and not replanting them. The most common reason is to clear the land to make farms and ranches. They also cut trees for firewood and lumber and to make room for cities. Deforestation de ...

Mixed forest

Mixed forests are a temperate and humid biome. The forests have four layers. The uppermost layer is the forest canopy of tall, mature trees from 33 to 66 m high. Below the canopy is the three-layered understory, about 9 to 15 m 30 to 50 feet shor ...

Old-growth forest

An old-growth forest is a forest that has reached a great age without much disturbance. It has unique ecological features, and might be classified as a climax community. Old-growth features include various tree-related structures. These provide w ...

Taiga

The taiga is a large area of coniferous forests. It covers most of inland Alaska, Canada, Sweden, Finland, inland Norway, northern Kazakhstan and Russia, as well as parts of the northern continental United States. In Canada, boreal forest is the ...

Woodland

Woodland is a low-density forest with plenty of sunlight and limited shade. It forms an open habitat. Woodlands have an understory of shrubs and herbaceous plants including grasses. Woodlands grade into shrubland in drier conditions or in early s ...

Community Identification Number

The Official Municipality Key, which used to be called the Official Municipality Characteristic Number or Municipality Code Number, is a group of numbers used to tell the difference between different municipalities and areas.

Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics

The Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics, for the French nomenclature dunites territoriales statistiques, is a geocode standard that shows the administrative divisions of countries for statistical purposes. It was made by the European ...

ONS coding system

The ONS coding system is a system used in the United Kingdom for dealing with census and other statistical data. It is used by the Office for National Statistics as a way to label each area of England and Wales. It is also used for parts of North ...

Geographer

A geographer is a scientist whose area of study is geography. That is the study of Earths physical environment and human habitat. Geographers are historically known as people who make maps. Nowadays map making is the field of study of cartography ...

Selma Barkham

Selma Huxley Barkham, was an English-Canadian historian and geographer. Her works focused on the maritime history of Canada and of the Basque Country. She was born in London. In 1981, she was awarded the Order of Canada for her work. A whaling po ...

Anne Buttimer

Anne Buttimer was an Irish geographer. She was emeritus professor of geography at University College, Dublin. She was born in Cork, Ireland. She was president of the IGU 2000–2004 and the first geographer to be vice-president of Academia Europaea ...

Ahmad Eghtedari

Ahmad Khan Eghtedari Gerashi was an Iranian teacher, lawyer, writer, historian and geographer. He was known for his work as an academic of Persian Gulf studies. He wrote 40 books and more than 100 educational papers. His works covered a wide rang ...

Patrick Geddes

Sir Patrick Geddes was a Scottish biologist, sociologist, geographer, philanthropist and pioneering town planner. He developed a new urban theoris, including the second master plan of Jerusalem in 1919. He also developed the first master plan of ...

Louis-Edmond Hamelin

Louis-Edmond Hamelin, was a Canadian geographer, professor, and author. Hamelin was born in Saint-Didace, Quebec, Canada. He was best known for his studies of Northern Canada. Hamelin created the Centre for Northern Studies at the Universite Lava ...

Alexander von Humboldt

Alexander von Humboldt was a Prussian naturalist and explorer. Humboldts work on botanical geography was very important in the field of biogeography.

Gerardus Mercator

Gerardus Mercator, also called Gerhard Kremer, and born Gerard de Cremere, was a Flemish geographer and mathematician from Belgium. He explored Flanders and made globes about the earth and the sky. He became one of the best mapmakers of the 16th ...

Marco Polo

Marco Polo was born in 1254 and died on January 8.1324. He was an Italian trader and explorer. He was one of the first Europeans to explore Central Asia and East Asia. Many other explorers, including Christopher Columbus, looked up to him. He cou ...

Tim Robinson (cartographer)

Tim Robinson was an English writer and cartographer. He was born in Yorkshire, England. Robinson made maps of the Aran Islands, Connemara, and the Burren in County Clare; these were published by Folding Landscape. His two-volume study of the Aran ...

Konrad Steffen

Konrad "Koni" Steffen was a Swiss glaciologist. He was known for his research into the impact of global warming on the Arctic. He was born in Zurich. Steffen was an associate professor of geography at the University of Colorado Boulder from 1991 ...

Martine Tabeaud

Martine Tabeaud is a French geographer, and climatologist. She teaches at University of Paris Pantheon Sorbonne, since 1977. She studied at Institut national de l’information geographique et forestiere. In 2019, she was appointed co-director of t ...

Hemisphere

Hemisphere means half of the Earth. The Northern Hemisphere means everything north of the Equator, which includes, North America, Central America, the northern part of South America, Europe, Asia, northern Africa, and the Middle East. The Eastern ...

Land hemisphere

The land hemisphere is the hemisphere on the Earth with the highest possible area of land. It is centered on 47°13′N 1°32′W. The other half of the Earth is the water hemisphere. The land hemisphere has seven eighths of the land on the Earth. This ...

Northern Hemisphere

The Northern Hemisphere is the part of the planet that is north of the equator. It has about 90 percent of the worlds population and most of the worlds land. All of North America and Europe are in the Northern Hemisphere. Most of Asia, two-thirds ...

Southern hemisphere

The Southern hemisphere is the half of Earth that is south of the equator. It has about 10 percent of worlds population and only a small part of the worlds land. A very small part of Asia, one-third of Africa, 90 percent of South America and all ...

Harbor

Harbour means to shelter or keep safe. A harbor is a place where ships may shelter. Some harbours are used as ports to load and unload ships. The port will have quays or piers where the ships may be moored or tied up and a transport system for ta ...

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